2006/08/20

Didactical History of a Science Fair

** transcipción da comunicación presentada a HSci2006 en setembro de 2006 en Braga **
** transciption of communication to HSci2006 (Braga, Portuga, sept. 2006) **

Didactical History of a Science Fair

Antonio Gregorio Montes
IES Porta da Auga
Avda. Luarca s/n
27700 Ribadeo
Spain
http://ribadeando.blogspot.com


Abstract. After 12 issues and different changes, Ribadeo's 'Science and Technology Fair' offer a history enough wide that could be profited. Facing their use in educational matters, are reviewing and analized didactical aspects in these 12 year.
In this work are submitted the guidelines of the 'Porta da Auga Science and Technology Fair' and mainlines of 'science fairs concept' as support to comment several didactical points, and is presented also a desirable guideline for future issues.

Keywords. Science fairs, didactical approach, scientific encouragement, young science, creativity, partitipation, collaboration.

1. Introduction and main concepts

This presentation is an attempt of advance in the understanding of the development of a Science Fair maintained through twelve years, to allow in the future:
to have a temporary line of possible development of science
to maintain a line of study with didactic base in this type of manifestations
the learning of promoters of science fairs

In general, it can say that the science fairs are events in which scholastic works of varied thematic are exposed, in a scientific scope. Its accomplishment is based on the students: they are made mainly by students to be visited, of main form but non unique, by students, although they take part like organizing professors or educative institutions or of institutions scientific diffusion, and can be visited by all type of public.
Its conception depends much on the place of development, but especially based on the convoking institution and the objectives.
It would be possible made classifications of fairs in different ways, following one or other criteria. Thus, for example, a classification would be based on the type of convoking institution:
1.educational centre at compulsory educational level or pre-university (as the IES Porta da Auga) or a university department (case of the University Matías Delgado in El Salvador)
2.institution or zonal or regional association (like the Association of Friends of the House of Sciences, in La Corunna, that annually summons the “Day of Science in the Street”)
3.institution or national association (INICE, institute of scientific and ecological initiatives, in Spain)
4.institution or international association (Cirasti like promotional and managing organization, HSci project like grouping of organizations that leans for their accomplishment),
In function of the type of convoking organization, it varies the public to that he goes directed and in general its conception. Something similar happens if we considered a division in thematic events and generalist events (in this case, including always the possibility of sections dedicated to the physics or to any other science separately) or if the emphasis is put in the investigation and communication of works or in the diffusion of knowledge, etc.
Another approach, historical, can locate the origin of these manifestations at the beginning of s.XX, in North America, from the spirit of professors so that their students exposed works to their own companions. Between world wars, some schools began to favor the excellent works with their open public exhibition.
After the II world war, an authentic movement arose, and in 1950 the first fair at U.S.A. level took place in Filadelfia, which contribute to increase the speed of diffusion of the idea and the accomplishment of the first international fairs, that had a competitive slant.
Historically, the levels of the students who participate are varied, depending on the organization of the fairs. In same way, although the local events are smaller and of smaller organization, maybe they are most valid educatively because are more near the public and of the own students in general.
The tendency to great fairs or events of reputation, maintained by diverse interests (advertising, more facility of sponsoring, etc) can incline the call for new events to this profile, before that in places like Galicia the small fairs, at school level, have an authentic diffusion.
Throughout the history of the science fairs also they went marking to divisions between originality and copy, as much in the organization as in projects presented/displayed, that include at the present time an ample range from the reproduction of apparatuses or experiences to the investigation or the construction of totally novel apparatuses (in [1] can explore the consequences to take refuge in one or another part of that diversity). It is possible to say that when looking for in Internet to have ideas to presentation in science fairs, it appears the Physics in percentage next to 25%, to Chemistry or Biology, although with a natural variation between ones and other data bases.
Ending, is possible to emphasize the clear distinction between the own organization of the fair and her projects (that often tends to confuse) beginning in the objectives and finalizing in the evaluation of each one of the two facets, happening of natural form through the people in charge of the execution of each one of the steps that occur. In this sense, we can speak of the division and the relation between continent / contained like representation of the own fair on the one hand and the projects that contain by another one.

2. A small history

At the beginning of the 90's, fell in my hands a serie of articles in which a particular vision of the science fairs appeared, a concept that I had before thru the cinema, so, plus story that reality. Particularly, the mentioned article [1] gave a minimum instruction set that extended the field of vision to me the sufficient to animating to me and promoting in our school an event of those characteristics. Thus, in 1995 it began in the IES Porta da Auga the celebration of Fairs of Science, as it were said in the presentation of the first edition, with spirit of survival and improving.
From that moment we have had 12 editions ago, enough expertise to make a small compilation, from a historical perspective, but structured more by subjects, questions, and Didactics and organization who by historical secuenciación.
On the part of the professors, every year the fair is approached with fear and hope: renewed fear to that it will be not managed to make the edition in course of the form about which thinks that it would have. This is because we are working with people in formation, and always is left the fear to that the formation is not sufficient.
Also hope: we are customary to fight to obtain the best.
On the part of the students, each new course, with eyes that find new features and that sometimes they take time in being accustomed to them. Also with that they happened through the fair and they remember it with affection.
The name? In this case, the name of “Fair of science” was reconciled with “and of the technology”, with the perspective of not make a copy of which became in other places, but to obtain a specific adaptation to our educative center, obtaining in addition the adhesion to the project to professors of the field of the technology, an important group in a center of professional training, that was the structure that it had then. Later, “and vocational training show” was also added, to include contents of another nature and to maintain the cohesion of the educative center. The increasing success later years, this same year, to divide the event, again being with the original name, “Fair of Science and the Technology”.
It will be with the present name? It seems a triviality to ask something thus. Nevertheless, the name is also a picture of the mentality and the heap whereupon confronts the event. In that sense, a change is possible, but it must be totally just, and tend to put more in clear the objectives and to favor the educative practice. Thus, a direction different from the activity gives rise to different names, and our students have participated in similar events but with directions different as they show the names to it of “Euroscience”, for the events within an European project from diffusion of the idea, “Science Fairs Throughout Europe” (SFTE), or “Day of science in the street”, for a project that tries to become at Galicia level with the collaboration of diverse educative centers and different organizations, but orienting its exhibitions towards science.
And the ideas? The ideas that take shelter year after year to deal with not repeating experiences have an varied origin: books, internet, other professors, etc, are alternated, and every year they appear new ideas and new places where to find them.
All the fairs were equal? No edition was similar to another one in reason of the experiences that appeared, but also in the organization, because always we tried to advance, although to small steps. The variation from an edition to another one is a weakness, but also a challenge. A weakness because the professors we are not professional of the of these events, but of teaching, and each new edition supposes new dangers and errors. That same mentality also supposes a challenge that makes possible improvements year to year.
It varies the people who participate? Every year vary the students, in successive promotions. The professors vary with less frequency, but between which they collaborated is people who do not know themselves because she did not agree in center educative. By all means, the same happens with the students, but in much greater degree. And the normal thing is that students and professors who participated in previous years are first people in visiting the fair.
It was always made in the same site? If we talk about the school, yes. Nevertheless, in twelve years the distribution of the scholastic space varied, including new spaces and searching for suitable places more adapted at the development of the event. Thus, the first year became in which today they are offices (before library), the assembly hall (today library) and the corridor among them. Last editions were made in the new sports pavilion, having much more space that previously.
Always participated same levels of students? First year that was possible to make the fair in school because we have the level of 1st year of technological baccalaureate (students 16 - 17 years old with an important scientific component in their timetable) Later went adding other groups until participating all the students. Even so, the level that began the experience continues being fundamental, because is one of best level of knowledge in science, lower than 2BT, but this level is oriented in its preparation for the test from access to the university.
That expansion had the fair? In the first years we looked for spread the fair, his concept, the action around her, and since then every year there is some news in the press, the radio and the television; some year, including the television at state level. Also, the fair had means of diffusion in other countries as a result of the educative European project Comenius I “SFTE”. Nevertheless, one flees from the danger that to the educative yield represents an extreme growth. It is necessary to remember again that no one of the promoters is professional of the fairs and however all the contributors we are related to education.
And the poster? Good part of the years was done by my same one, but also other professors have participated, like Maite Castro and MŞ Jesus, professors both of Drawing. In this aspect, we encourage the participation of people of the school from the first moment, professors and students. Thus, only in two occasions (editions X and XI) its design was made by people out the school. And also companing the design, almost every year puts a motto, treating to relate fair, science and education. Thus, in the first edition, “fly with the reality” on an outlined air balloon that yawing an eye, animated to make possible any thing by means of the imagination and science. Mottos that in any case continue being valid nowadays: “Science? Natural!”, “the sound of science”, “Observe. Think. Make”, “science, in the home” are some of the used mottos, words that try to see the science like something natural and inner to the nature, to listen to science, to act in a scientific form, to include/understand that science has use in all place, etc.
How many experiences happened through the fair? Around 900 in these 12 editions, only counting the disciplines that participated every year. But the number is a smaller question.
And the financing? It varied from a year to another, counting some without budge, only spending the photocopy for posters and pamphlets. There were also years in which companies and foundations have sponsored in a generous manner the event. Every year is different and depends on situation.
Who is the fair propiety? As answer could be said: of the IES. Nevertheless, that answer takes with himself a non consiering people, in the same form that if we answered the question of that they are the students? with the answer “of the IES”. Because the fair is of all those that participate in her, professors or students, would be called Felipe or Ana, Susi or Joaquin, Teresa or Adrián,… to name some of the participants in this last edition, professors and students. Therefore, in greater or smaller degree, of all the participants.

2.1. 2006 Science Fair history

The science fair begins with the end of the previous edition. Thus was reflected in the video gathered in the first edition, and thus it continues being. Nevertheless, the movement begins with the academic course: it is then when the challenges consider so that the students begin to work, the documents are gathered to go, begin the animation on the part of the professors, etc. This beginning is slow and almost invisible from outside, for the people who are not implied directly.
If we took history from a fair in particular, we are attemped to make visible what it is seen more, and thus will be made in this section, but always with warning of which what it sees it is only the end of iceberg, and hauy that to think about all the work that is made underground.
March, 31, 2006. The assembly of the fair begins. As always that we put ourselves to work, the site to occupy is empty, and only our imagination fills it, at the moment, of a blurred form that will clear step to step. We used heavy panels who are transferred slowly the warehouse, between sweat and laughter, it drags and it transports by wheels. It is clear that sometimes it is not easy to apply the wheel' technology to the movements, although the panels undergo more. Slips, scares, step to step, the ground is being covered first, and soon separated one in pieces that they try to be a distribution of the space. That is to say, the sports center becomes a hall exhibitions in little steps.
April, 3. Enter to the hall exhibitions gives already a different impression. Still material lack to transfer, other to vary of position, etc, but is a phase different from the one, a phase to separe spaces: now is more architecture of spaces, and after, decoration. Well, that in the morning, because advancing the day they appear the cable lines, the paper covering tables,… and more still advanced, the first exhibitions.
April, 4. The day of the inauguration is arrived. Everybody knows that there is a limit: the six of afternoon. To that hour it is the inauguration. But, in fact, this one is the first day of the fair. The diverse presentations, exhibitions, apparatus, posters, studies… are quickly filling the diverse places, in which still some change of distribution of last hour is appraised. No longer it is a hall exhibitions, is a expositions and congresses palace, because people congregate themselves indeed not only for the assembly, but also for first visits, still before the inauguration. Those are many of the exhibitors that are going to see the others, that in this case is so “collaboration” than “competence”. The memory forgets express the hours until the moment of the inauguration. The sensations, always subjective, of gap of time, can be studied in a next edition of the fair, because they are interesting.
And the hour arrives. The assembly hall fills while the table is occupied only by three people. They lack authorities, with the exception of an ex--student who today holds the position of mayor lieutenant and who makes the ceremony more home-made, of the educational center, for the education and not to the gallery, and, in time represents a communication channel with the outside. So, it does not lack the press, that will accompany to the fair from the leaves of newspapers to diverse programs in several televisions, happening also through the radio. If the inauguration act is natural, the first visit is the boom from exit to a small revolution in which the fear by the result disappeared, because everything is on. And soon… the thorns of coexistence, that know better after seeing than everything works, to the time that all, students, professors, directors of schools visitors, friends, companions, are a mass that eats, with a smile in the mouth.
April, 5. Today already it is a calmed day more. One knows the visits that there are, and also that there is to guide them and to explain, although not yet is the sufficient expertise to do it. Throughout the day it is taken experience, as much to guide groups as to have resources to explain, and also, a little is known the fair a little more. Well, not all the fair, but what in her is shown. And already they are left clear the preferences of each one. The attractive works begin to be more visited. The attraction can be by reasons different from the related to education. The television, that begins its visits to the fair, also makes its election of which that thinks it is going to hit more. And it makes at the moment famous actors inner the school, and, part to spread experiences of bones that seem made in plastic, seeds which grow of different form, arcs which remember Roman aqueducts, electricity explained by liquids, electroimans, studies of behavior, bells that touch when television apparatus turn off, elevators, peculiar figures in paper, mathematics of the physics and physics of the mathematics, and many things more, until near one hundred.
April, 6. The most total day, in which the students have experiency guiding groups and in explanations they take control of resources and security, the new groups of other centers that come from visit create sensation of continuity more than of newness, and also it begins to feel some disinterestedness because “I have seen everything”... But, if is verified, it is clear that is not sight with desirable depth, 'verified and certified'… always happens, better students or professors including. The “stars of the fair” comment their experience, and also it is possible to be commented that the screen of the television can be an electrical danger, that the aqueduct of Segovia was easy to do, that he is stranger that are so many forms to swell a globe or to the amount of things that can be done with a paper. It seems lie, but the most total day of the fair he is also the calm one, and easiest to describe.
April, 7. The day arrived. Last visits do not notice it, but… the mind is already thinking about the ending, in the aim and death of the fair. Everything is already controlled, students and teachers knows that it was a success, and it begins to think about the continuation. No one thinks still about next year fair, but in experiences that will participate in the “day of science in the street”, that will go,… until the moment arrives for gathering. Then, in just a short time, everything returns to change. Sometimes too fast, because what one takes shelter it suffers and it did not have to suffer. And it already is, later the panels (at another moment) will take shelter and the fair finalized.
It did not finalize: lack, for example, the memory of the projects, that is often made thinking about the next one that it will be made. It lacks the collection of opinions on which it is possible to be improved. Lack… the next edition. But also they are left things: the memory of those visitors whom they loved to go without guide, the visit of smallest visitors Thursdays after the hour of class, to see the fair in television, to remember how the assembly companion disappeared without helping, or that bone that seemed of plastic but that he was able to deceive a dog because was really.

3. Didactical view

When a science fair is including in the activities of a school, the daily life of the scholastic center varies. An event as the science fair has a profile with a evident didactic incidence, as well as in the structuring of education or the time available. We have learned that the person of reference in the scholastic organization tends to diminish the variations of the daily routine and therefore, to be against (of indirect form) to the accomplishment of the fair, reason why in our situation favors a tradition of twelve years, separated to the own positive evaluation of the fair. Also, it favors the possibility of developing new organizational experiences, increasing the heap of control of the fair on the part of the professors.
If we considered the time, according to the fair is conceived, it can be seen increased by way of the culture of a liking or well as extra work, or disminishing if the organization of the fair chose to use academic hours for the accomplishment of works. Evidently, the two possibilities infer very different models of work and theoretical. In relation to it, can be considered different strategies oby each professor; in our case, we have decided independence of options in each case, having contemplated some cases totally directed (in general, with students of less age) and others totally independent (of people of more age, revising work periodically or by request), and by all intermediate range. Thus, each professor inserts the fair in his didactic development of a customized form and a judgment cannot be made uniform, with the advantages and disadvantages that it derives. There have been changes in the form in which the professors exert the control or in the objectives who set out, but have not been uniform. Thus, in some the tendency is towards to a greater freedom of investigation whereas in others it is simply the exploration of new fields proposed for the development of the activity.
There is a clear relation between science and the daily life in practically any form of fair that becomes, the same that favors a vision of science like something applicable and therefore its useful and beneficial consideration, increasing in both cases the scientific interest of the students by the curricular contents and methods. This has been verified by us, but not measured in a graduated form. Also between us is a tendency clear to take advantage of materials that were developed entirely or partly by students in previous editions, as to developp the classes of one more visual and demonstrative or constructive form.
According to which model is chosen, thus allows the approach to the scientific method, better understanding or application and internalization of science. Thus, its relation with the educative theories can be studied of theoretical form to see the most advisable models in each case, or to cross that way through the experience, interpreted thru the personal trajectories or the educative theories. This is something that we have verified in particular cases, but which we have not been able to develop at the moment a guide system.
Often the competition between the participants in a science fair is assumed, made through its projects, declaring so a particular didactics that it is added to the active learning, and similarly, to the learning of the experimentation. We have established prizes in several editions of fairs, but we have not noticed a substantial improvement in the educative yield, and however if there has been an increase (small) of quarrels. We have had prizes of different types, and some have given better result than others, but at the present time we did not summon them in the belief that disadvantages and advantages are similar, although we did not discard to return to restore them.
The accomplishment of science fairs affects the method of projects, but the desirable autonomy of the students and its projects in relation to the professor, and the main structure of science fairs, do of all science fairs 'metaprojects'. It is necessary to consider the projects that are exposed as part of a more general project, the fair, and that must of being dealed with different form. And each professor also has a form different to do it.
The fairs also represent a didactic tool (and according to the sense of the own fair, affecting more the formation in investigation that in the formation in scientific theory) but a system of scientific spreading in two slopes: specialized and general (since the levels of the projects correspond to the “scientific magic” of smallest students to the obtained law or the demonstration of the greater ones). In both fields we have seen its qualitative utility, and in the present time we direct the presentations to different types of public, from small children to people with certain scientific knowledge, to be able to take advantage of the scientific diffusion that represents the fair, and to contribute to increase the level scientific of the society of a plus efective form.
The scientific method is the base for a project of fair, but it is necessary to consider that although can be considered minimum, exist expenses that can transform all the set. Its reduction is a practical question that it is not reviewed here, and a problem from year to year for the accomplishment of the fair that everyone has to solve of different form.

4. Students: its opinion

The opinion of the pupils is varying in each person throughout a process that concludes after the fair and begins with the preparations: the animation to participate, the election of work, the development of the previous activity, the preparation of the presentation, the exhibition, the later reflection, not only are steps in structuring an event of this type; they are also psychic phases that correspond in the students with different visions of the process and its own implication.
Finally, becomes the enthusiasm in showing the project and the confidence in the basic model (in its different versions) to make this work. Also the transition between the initial difficulty and the understanding, the dominion or the final enthusiasm in the handling of certain methods of work, including aspects of scientific methodology and others of diverse nature, like guiding groups of visitors through the fair, for example, animates to repeat the experience and to take advantage of the same one during more time. Certainly, like in any social situation, always there is a range of answers between which some of negative type can exist. Nevertheless, there has been a change throughout the time on this annual evolution: due to the valuation (in points to calification and social vision) of the fair, the students tend to try to obtain the greater personal benefit (noneducative), which forces to a greater understanding and negotiation between the diverse participants.
The surveys passed to the students for evaluation of the process are neither uniform nor a form of evaluation used most of times, being able to say that in general the students are not consulted formally, and are evaluated in a sense that foments the competitiveness most that its didactic yield in relation to the projects and the fair or induction of a deepest learning. This is certain at general level and in individual in our fair, in which we have made attempts several times with not so good results.
In relation to the form of work, such students are able to discern only part of the usability of the works presented/displayed, since they are based of main form on the good looking. That is almost what we have stated.

5. What feeling professors?

Like promoters of the fairs, the vision that the professors have could be pronounced slanted. Nevertheless, they cannot have a unanimous agreement within the group when existing different visions from fair, insertion in the daily didactic development (in agreement with the Castilian saying that states “each little teacher has his own little book”), etc. This opinion goes, in our school and within the professors who have participated in several editions, from the total approval to the experimental repetition trying to look for a method that really convinces the professor.
Although with the previous warning, in general who proves the method is been thankful with the system, although the option to continue using it or no, depends on the circumstances of each particular educative center. This pronounces in that, in spite of the extra work that supposes an event thus, it is increasing the number of entities that promotes them. In the previous sense, it will have to consider the importance of the existence of a promotional, managing and evaluator team of a fair, and not of an individual professor who makes all the functions. Thus, the judgment on the result and its application will have to also extend to the team, in which the merit or the impulse will reside altogether to continue making other editions of the fair. Often, as in our case, this step has been bit to bit and it does not uniform, but it is necessary not only for an edition, but mainly even to mantain the necessary continuity so that the fair renders in the wished form.
In the various consulted sources it is made notice a considerable amount of experiences to reproduce, and also the existence of little manual of accomplishment. However, a deficiency of study of the process and the corresponding didactic theory notices altogether, advancing of form semi scientist by procedure of test and error, and without the equipment to do an evaluation adapted of the error.
Corresponding with the previous say, there is not either an evaluation form that as resulting from shows to the advances of each student the accomplishment of the fairs in relation to the supposition of his non accomplishment.

6. ... And society? (and parents!)

The society can watch at the fairs of different form according to the position in relation to they. Thus, it is evident that a sponsor will have interest more in the image than in the own educative result, although both things are related. Derived of this, we cannot be consider minimumly uniforms ides in this section.
Another different vision offers the parents, who represent a special form of public and which they see the fair mediatized by the eyes of his children.
So, we were whereupon the parents usually have a positive vision, but often folkloric and more of type of social learning that science learning.
Even so, its participation is more and more essential, and its integration settles like one of the possible objectives, although he is not the primary one: it is the form in that they access to the scholastic life, or they retake the care of his children, or establish another type of coexistence based on the aid to complete the projects, to put three examples.

7. Perspectives and prospective

Supported at diverse levels to this type of didactic actions or the diffusion of the same ones is being increased, with which it can be foresee the future for the increase of his number.
Fairs are in apparent progress around the world, although also it is evolving his conception and tendencies since I have said in another section, and each professor and each center must look for his way to obtain the greater benefit or the mere possibility of accomplishment.
Nevertheless, a deep study of these actions and a methodology of evaluation is not yet prepared, and is needed to include the fairs of science in the common didactic use, with a suitable advantage and a practice, necessary to allow its maximum educative yield.
Related to the previous sayed, also is necessary an evaluation not only of the works presented / displayed to the fairs, but also of the process and the yields of the process. And as previous step is necessary to make a design, accurately in the objectives and a methodologic adjustment to the didactics, pending action in most of the cases. It is possible to say that we have tried a system of quality internal to our fair, but at the moment we have failed in his application, for which a method makes lack that is not easy when the vision of the professors and the level of knowledge of the students can vary much. Even so, part of us we want to repeat the attempt to improve the development of the fair.
In each edition, the projects see like something individual, with few really colaborative projects unless they are imposed of some way by the professor, with which the opportunity to learn to make the work in equipment is lost, a lost opportunity to improve this necessary form of work at the advisable present time and like method of alternative learning.
A great number of professors assume that the science fairs are products with a certain format, like for example, the fair format that has a certain sponsorship, as he is the one of Intel. This type of sponsorship and “closed” format is the one that is centering good part of the growth of the number of fairs in some zones of the world, appearing therefore the imposed objectives of extra-academic form, have or not an agreement with didactic objectives.
I consider advisable to make a call to the people whom they have thought to promote fairs, so that their adjustment to the educative reality is best the possible one, over impositions of another type. The previous said, being conscious of the difficulties that would to involve in some case.


8. Conclusion. Little summary

Science fairs are a very valid method of education in science, but is following without methodologically develop, or making a practical study of the their reality. These reasons will need have a methodology of action and measurement of adapted form, understanding that it is necessary a development of studies of individual fairs and a method of cooperative work.

9. Acknowledgements

I always must mention to Alan Ward like the person who caused that final step until putting to go in this subject, but the certain thing is that without my companions of teaching and my family, little it could have done: consequently, per moments, our house also seems a fair.

10. References

I've divided a short list of referencies in two classes: directly related to IES Porta da Auga S.F., and other, these last class, mainly websites and in latin langages. This list signifies not great works but, for me, significative works in some of the aspects related with article. Both web referencies in internal section will signify, in dates of congress, a lot of summarized information over SF in the IES.

10.1. Internal

Gregorio Montes, A. et al., A actitude dos alumnos ante a ciencia. Boletín das ciencias IX Congreso Enciga, pp140 ss.
Gregorio Montes, A. Voa coa imaxinación. Boletín das ciencias IX Congreso Enciga, pp205.
http://centros.edu.xunta.es/iesportadaauga
http://ribadeo.webcindario.com/ciencia

10.2. External

[2] Ward, A., Planning, organizing and staging a school science fair, School Science Review 1994, Vol 74, Nr 273, 41-47
Buján González, D., Cid Fernández M., Divertíndonos con ciencia. Boletín das ciencias IX Congreso Enciga. Pp86 ss.
Eco, Umberto, El museo en el tercer milenio, Revista de Occidente, julio-agosto 2005.
http://www.feiradeciencias.com.br
http://www.cienciafacil.com/
http://www.scifair.org/
http://espanol.groups.yahoo.com/group/cultoalasreglas/
http://www.tesna.it/sfte
http://metodologia.tripod.com.pe
http://prociencia2005.tripod.com
http://www.cdli.ca/sciencefairs/
http://www.tierradelfuego.org.ar/cyt/
http://www.enciga.org
http://physics.usc.edu/~gould/ScienceFairs/
http://school.discovery.com/sciencefaircentral/

http://www.teachingideas.co.uk
http://www.uq.edu.au/_School_Science_Lessons
http://www.oei.org.co/fpciencia
http://www.super-science-fair-projects.com/
http://www.cdli.ca/sciencefairs/
http://pv.chseagles.com/Parkview%20editions%202003-04.pdf
http://www.science-fair.org/
http://www.sciencebuddies.org/
http://www.cienciafacil.com/feriadeciencias.html
http://www.secyt.gov.ar/FeriaJuvenil/presentacionferia.htm

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